Welcome to our new lesson! What is Past perfect tense? What are the rules? What are the usages? How to use past perfect tense in a conversation? Let’s analyse the answers to all these questions.
What are the RULES of using past perfect tense?
- POSITIVE: SUB + HAD + HAD ( 3rd FORM OF HAVE) + OBJECT
- NEGATIVE: SUB + HAD NOT + HAD ( 3rd FORM OF HAVE) + OBJECT
- INTERROGATIVE: HAD + SUB + HAD ( 3rd FORM OF HAVE) + OBJECT?
|Positive (TO HAVE)||Negative (to have)||Negative short form||Yes / No questions|
|I had had||I had not had||I hadn’t had||Had I had?|
|You had had||You had not had||You hadn’t had||Had you had?|
|He had had||He had not had||He hadn’t had||Had he had?|
|She had had||She had not had||She hadn’t had||Had she had?|
|It had had||It had not had||It hadn’t had||Had it had?|
|We had had||We had not had||We hadn’t had||Had we had?|
|They had had||They had not had||They hadn’t had||Had they had?|
TO DO (ACTION VERBS)
- POSITIVE: SUB + HAD + VERB 3 + OBJECT
- NEGATIVE: SUB + HAD + VERB 3 + OBJECT
- INTERROGATIVE: HAD + SUB + VERB 3 + OBJECT?
|Positive (of ‘play’)||Negative (of ‘play’)||Negative short form||Yes / No questions|
|I had played.||I had not played.||I hadn’t played.||Had I played?|
|You had played.||You had not played.||You hadn’t played.||Had you played?|
|He had played.||He had not played.||He hadn’t played.||Had he played?|
|She had played.||She had not played.||She hadn’t played.||Had she played?|
|It had played.||It had not played.||It hadn’t played.||Had it played?|
|We had played.||We had not played.||We hadn’t played.||Had we played?|
|They had played.||They had not played.||They hadn’t played.||Had they played?|
Past Perfect Tense- Usages
To describe an action that was completed before another began. For example –
- Mother had gone to the temple when my aunt came home.
- Mr Smith had left the party before dinner started.
- Police had reached the incident spot before hooligans set the building on fire.
- He had given hope before the operation started.
- Had maid cleaned the house when the guests reached?
- Had you worked with any MNC before joining this certification course?
To express expectations and wishes. For examples –
- She had imagined a beautiful dress but she could not find it.
- I wish I had known some people in the USA before getting a job there.
- I wish I had learnt driving.
- He had prayed for a comfortable life.
- The journey was hectic as I had not thought even.
If two actions happened in the past when it is necessary to show which action happened earlier than the other; the relevance which the earlier action had for the later action or situation. The past perfect is mainly used in such cases. The simple past is used in one clause and the past perfect in the other. For examples –
- By 8 pm last evening, I had taken dinner.
- She had solved all the sums before her sister did.
- He had quarrelled with his colleague before HR came to office.
- Before announcing demonetization, Mr Modi had made a plan for it.
- Mother had convinced my sister for getting married before looking for a suitable match.
- Before joining the Indian Cricket team, M.S. Dhoni had worked with Indian Railways.
CONVERSATION ON PAST PERFECT TENSE
PAST PERFECT TENSE-
Sam- Had you prepared breakfast for father before he got ready for the office?
Sarah- No, I had not.
Sam- Why not?
Sarah- I had been busy doing other stuff. Now tell me, why had not you done so?
Sam- To whom had mother given the responsibility of cooking? To you, not to me.
Sarah- Mother had not taken anyone’s name. She had said that we both are responsible for doing household chores.
Sam- I think you had not listened to her properly. She had clearly said that by the time she comes back from grandmother’s home, Sarah is responsible for all work.
Sarah- No, she had not mentioned my name.
Sam- Yes! She had done so.
Sarah- No, she had not.
Sam-Yes! She had.
Watch our video on Simple Past Tense.
Read more on – Simple Past Tense